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Resources & References

Professional Resources

Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)

American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)

American Society of Clinical Pathology

Mayo Clinic

Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Commission on Laboratory Accreditation (COLA)

National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel (NCALP)


  1. Dubberke ER, Gerding DN, Classen D, Arias KM, Podgorny K, Anderson DJ, et al. Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.  2008;29 (Supplement 1):581-592. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/591065?cookieSet=1. Accessed February 15, 2010.
  2. Rupnik M, Wilcox MH, Gerding DN. Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nat Rev: Microbiol. 2009;7:526-536.
  3. Redelings MD, Sorvillo F, Mascola L. Increase in Clostridium difficile–related mortality rates, United States, 1999–2004. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/13/9/1417.htm. Accessed February 10, 2010.
  4. Owens RC Jr. Clostridium difficile-associated disease: an emerging threat to patient safety. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26(3):299-311.
  5. Fekety R. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(5):739-750.
  6. Gerding DN, Johnson S, Peterson LR, Mulligan ME, Silva J Jr. SHEA position paper. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1995;16:459-477.
  7. Friedenberg, FK. Clostridium difficile-associated disease: changing epidemiology and treatment options. Medscape 2007: Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/563386. Accessed 11/11/09.
  8. Scott RD II. The direct medical costs of healthcare-associated infections in U.S. hospitals and the benefits of prevention. CDC 2008. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/Scott_CostPaper.pdf . Accessed March 17, 2010.
  9. Verdoorn BP, Orenstein R, Rosenblatt JE, Sloan LM, Schleck CD, Harmsen WS, et al. High prevalence of tcdC deletion-carrying Clostridium difficile and lack of association with disease severity. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;66:24-28.
  10. Cloud J, Noddin L, Pressman A, Hu M, Kelly C. Clostridium difficile is not associated with severe disease in a nonepidemic setting. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;7:868-873.
  11. The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). National prevalence study of Clostridium difficile in U.S. healthcare facilities. November 2008.
  12. Meridian Bioscience, Inc, Cincinnati, OH. Package Insert for ImmunoCard Toxins A & B.
  13. Wampole, Blacksburg, VA. Package Insert for Tox A/B Quik Chek®.
  14. Wampole, Blacksburg, VA. Package Insert for Tox A/B Quik Chek Complete®.
  15. Remel, Lenexa, KS. Package Insert for Xpect® Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B.
  16. Remel, Lenexa, KS. Package Insert for ProSpecT® Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B Microplate Assay.
  17. Biomerieux, Durham, NC. Package Insert for Vidas®C. difficile Toxin A&B
  18. Becton Dickenson. Package Insert for BD GeneOhm™ C. diff Assay.
  19. Prodesse. Package Insert for ProGastro™ CD Assay.
  20. Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA. Package Insert for Xpert® C. difficile
  21. Gerding DN. Present and future management options for Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Dis. 2009;9-16.

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