Streptococcal disease is caused by the streptococcus group of bacteria: Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group G which create symptoms ranging from a mild throat infection to a life-threatening infection of the blood or organs. Group A strep (GAS) tends to affect the throat and the skin and can cause strep throat, scarlet fever, and impetigo. Group B streptococcus, also known as group B strep or GBS, is a type of bacteria that can cause illness in people of all ages, though it can be particularly severe in newborns, most commonly causing sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Group C and G streptococci are much less understood than strep A and B because the diseases caused by these bacteria are far less common. Group C and G strep most commonly live in animals such as horses and cattle and can spread to humans through raw milk or contact with these animals. Most strep infections can be treated with antibiotics and diagnosis is typically by culture or a rapid antigen detection test (RADT).
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