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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a sexually transmitted lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition that leads to progressive failure of the immune system. It is spread through contact with blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of a person with HIV. If left untreated, it is almost always fatal.

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55 Results
Name
Type
Format
Host/Source
Isotype
Tested Apps
Unit
Catalog
SDS
COA
Request Sample
MAb to HIV-1(pnd Of Mn Strain)
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
N/A
MG
C18111M
MAb to HIV-1, gp41
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
N/A
MG
C18812M
MAb to HIV-2, gp36
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA
MG
C18386M
HIV-1 nef antigen Recomb
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R8A112
HIV-1 gp41 Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, LF
MG
R01633
HIV-2 gp36 Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, LF
MG
R01634
HIV Chimeric Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, LF, Pr
MG
R01625
HIV Chimeric Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
LF, Pr
MG
R01626
HIV Chimeric Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
LF, Pr
MG
R01631
Chicken anti HIV-1 p24
Polyclonal
Aff.Pur.
Chicken
N/A
EIA, Pr
MG
C01847C
Chicken anti HIV-1 p24
Polyclonal
Aff.Pur.
Chicken
N/A
EIA, Pr
MG
C01848C
HIV-1 gp41 env. Recomb
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA
MG
R65908
HIV-2 gp36 Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA
MG
R65911
Goat anti HIV-1
Polyclonal
Purified
Goat
N/A
IFA
ML
B65875G
MAb to HIV-1 P24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, Pr
MG
C11998M
MAb to HIV-1 P24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, Pr
MG
C11999M
HIV-1 Ag, Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R01593
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
EIA, Pr
MG
C01657M
HIV-1 p24, Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
Pichia pastoris
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
VTI340
HIV-2 gp36, Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
Pichia pastoris
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
VTI360
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
EIA, Pr
MG
C01655M
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
CLIA, EIA, LF, Pr, WB
MG
C01653M
HIV gp41/O Group Gp41/gp36
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA
MG
R01547
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
EIA, Pr
MG
C01656M
Goat anti HIV-1 P24
Polyclonal
Purified
Goat
N/A
EIA, IFA, WB
ML
B65951G
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, IFA
MG
C65479M
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, IFA
MG
C65489M
Goat anti HIV-1 Gp120
Polyclonal
HRP
Goat
N/A
EIA, WB
ML
B65961P
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, Pr
MG
C65499M
Goat anti HIV-1
Polyclonal
HRP
Goat
N/A
EIA
ML
B65873G
Goat anti HIV-1 P24
Polyclonal
HRP
Goat
N/A
EIA, WB
ML
B65951P
Goat anti HIV-1 P24
Polyclonal
FITC
Goat
N/A
EIA, IFA, WB
ML
B65951F
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, IFA, IHC(f), LF, Pr, WB
MG
C65941M
Goat anti HIV-1 Gp120
Polyclonal
Purified
Goat
N/A
EIA, WB
ML
B65961G
MAb to HIV-1 p17
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, IHC(f), IP, WB
MG
C8A014M
MAb to HIV-2 Gp36
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
EIA, WB
MG
C8A401H
HIV-1 Env Ag Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R8A113
HIV-1 gag p24 Ag Recomb. IIIb
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R8A111
HIV-2 Env Ag Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R8A114
MAb to HIV-1 gp41
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG2
WB
MG
C65911M
MAb to HIV 1/2 P24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
EIA, WB
MG
C01576M
HIV-2 env. gp36, Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R18410
MAb to HIV-1 gp41
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, WB
MG
C8A015M
Goat anti HIV-1 Gp41
Polyclonal
Purified
Goat
N/A
WB
ML
B65971G
Goat anti HIV-1 Gp120
Polyclonal
Biotin
Goat
N/A
EIA, WB
ML
B65961B
Goat anti HIV-1 P24
Polyclonal
Biotin
Goat
N/A
EIA, WB
ML
B65951B
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
CLIA, EIA, LF, Pr
MG
C65690M
HIV-1 Ag Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R18550
HIV-1 Integrase p31, Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, LF, WB
MG
R01488
MAb to HIV 1/2 P24
Monoclonal
Purified
Mouse
IgG1,k
EIA, WB
MG
C01577M
HIV-2 gp36 Seq
Antigen
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA, WB
MG
R18220
HIV-1 gp41 Ag, Type O, Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA, LF, WB
MG
R01454
HIV-1 gp160, Recombinant
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA
MG
R01532
HIV-1 Gp120 (v3 Loop), Recomb.
Antigen
Purified
E. coli
N/A
EIA
MG
R01276
MAb to HIV-1 p24
Monoclonal
FITC
Mouse
IgG1
EIA, IFA, IHC(f), WB
MG
C65941F

Human Immunodeficiency (HIV)

There are two major types of HIV, type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2). HIV-1 viruses are further divided into groups M, N, O, P. Group M viruses are the most common group and are predominately responsible for the AIDS pandemic. Group M is further subdivided into clades based on their genetic sequences, which tend to concentrate within specific geographic regions. The clade that an individual becomes infected with can be a major factor in the rate of progression to AIDS; specifically clades C, D and G are 8 times more likely to develop AIDS.

HIV-2 is mostly found in West Africa and it is also divided into groups (A to H). It is less easily transmitted than HIV-1 and the time between infection and symptoms tends to be longer. Despite its relative geographic confinement, HIV-2 should be considered in all patients exhibiting symptoms of HIV.

HIV is divided into three main stages:

Acute Retroviral Syndrome: Early symptoms of HIV are defined as acute retroviral syndrome and they appear 3-6 weeks after infection and can easily be confused with the symptoms of the flu or other milder diseases. As a result, most infections remain undiagnosed until they progress to more advanced stages.

Clinical Latency (inactivity or dormancy): This period is sometimes called asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection. During this phase HIV is active but reproduces at very low levels. People who are on antiretroviral therapy may live with clinical latency for several decades. Toward the middle and end of this period, the viral load begins to rise and the CD4+ cell count begins to drop. The World Health Organization (WHO) sub-classifies this period into three stages based on the CD4+ cell count of the individual:

STAGE 1: the CD4+ cell count is at least 500 cells per microliter

STAGE 2: the CD4+ cell count is 350 to 499

STAGE 3 (advanced HIV disease, or AHD): The CD4+ cell count is 200 to 349

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the stage of infection that occurs when the immune system is badly damaged and an infected individual become vulnerable to opportunistic illnesses. The CD4+ cell count is less than 200 or the percent of CD4+ cells is less than 15% of all lymphocytes. Without treatment, people who are diagnosed with AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Once a dangerous opportunistic illness is acquired, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year.

Diagnosis

Laboratory diagnosis is the only way to confirm an HIV infection and there are specific serologic markers that can be detected early in the course of an infection:

  • HIV RNA: detectable by molecular methods, 11 days from the time of HIV infection
  • HIV-1 P24 ANTIGEN: detectable 16 days from the time of infection
  • HIV ANTIBODIES: detectable 22 days from the time of infection.

During the early infection stage (acute retroviral syndrome) the flu-like symptoms are accompanied by a burst of viral replication that can be detected in the blood. The detection of p24 antigen (viral capsid protein) is directly correlated to the amount of virus (viral load) circulating in the infected individual.

Antibodies against specific HIV proteins and glycoproteins (e.g. p24, gp41, gp120) are produced between 2-8 weeks after infection and remain detectable in the blood thereafter.

The screening test most widely used to detect exposure to HIV is the “HIV Antibody Test”. The first test was approved in 1985 by the FDA and it still remains one of the WHO recommended HIV diagnostics. Advances in technologies and critical reagents have enabled the development of new generation HIV Antibody Tests, which are able to detect an infected individual earlier and with greater accuracy. The 4th generation HIV Antibody Test is capable of diagnosing an HIV infection 3-4 weeks after transmission by simultaneously detecting both HIV antibody and p24 antigen. In addition, many of these tests can also distinguish between acute and established HIV infections, as well as detect antibodies to HIV groups M and O, and HIV-2.

The commercial HIV diagnostic testing market has expanded to include several testing formats such as Western blot, immunofluorescence (IFA), and lateral flow as well as self-collection sample types such as saliva, and urine. Regardless of the type of screening test used, a positive result requires follow up with a second test to confirm a diagnosis of HIV.

Get In Touch With A Specialist

Have questions about a product? Want to learn more about Meridian’s molecular or immunoassay reagent portfolio? We want to hear from you!

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