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Influenza B

Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, chills, a hacking cough, and body aches which can self-resolve in 1-2 weeks. However, complications can arise including life-threatening secondary infections. Influenza is a serious disease, and approximately 1 in 1,000 cases result in death.

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Influenza B Products (46)

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Name Type Format Host/Source Isotype Tested Apps Unit Catalog Buffer Immunogen Recombinant Description Notes SDS COA New Product Recommended Product Order a Sample
mAb to Influenza B NP Monoclonal Aff.Pur. Rabbit IgG EIA,LF MG BN1224 No View COA 0 Order a Sample
mAb to Influenza B NP Monoclonal Aff.Pur. Mouse IgG2a,k EIA,LF MG BN1223 No View COA 0 Order a Sample
mAb to Influenza B NP Monoclonal Aff.Pur. Mouse IgG2a,k EIA,LF MG BN1222 No View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B, NP Rec. Ag Antigen Purified HEK Cells N/A EIA,LF MG BN1120 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Mab to Influenza B NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2b,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1076 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Mab to Influenza B NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2a,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1075 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B Nucleoprotein Antigen Purified, Liquid E. coli N/A EIA,LF,WB,CLI MG 9594 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb Influenza B Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2b EIA,LF,Pr MG 9587 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B(B/Victoria/504/00) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86350 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B (B/Tokyo/53/99) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86250 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B (B/Hong Kong 5/72) Antigen Purified MDCK Cells N/A EIA ML R02310 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B (B/Malaysia) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01248 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B (B/Florida/07/04) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01247 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Influenza B (B/Florida/04/06) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01246 No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b IFA,LF,Pr MG C65131M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b IFA,LF,Pr MG C65107M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b IFA,LF,Pr MG C65081M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b IFA,LF,Pr MG C65016M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a LF,Pr MG C01900M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a LF,Pr MG C01897M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,WB MG C01763M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a Pr,LF MG C01749M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 Pr,LF MG C01748M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a Pr,LF MG C01747M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b Pr,LF MG C01746M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,Pr,LF MG C01745M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b Pr,LF MG C01744M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 Pr,LF MG C01743M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a Pr,LF MG C01742M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 Pr,LF MG C01741M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,WB MG C01684M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (matrix M1) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01346M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (matrix M1) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01345M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01343M No View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01342M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01341M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01340M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01329M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01328M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01327M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,Pr,WB MG C01326M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,LF,WB MG C01302M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B HA2 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,WB MG C01276M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
MAb to Influenza B HA2 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,WB MG C01275M No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Goat anti Influenza B Virions Polyclonal HRP Goat N/A EIA,IFA,WB ML B65344G No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample
Goat anti Influenza B Virions Polyclonal Biotin Goat N/A EIA,IFA,WB ML B65342G No View SDS View COA 0 Order a Sample

Influenza

There are three main types of influenza virus (Types A, B, and C) that cause infection in humans and these are further characterized into subtypes and strains. The continued emergence of new flu strains each year is due to the ability of the influenza virus to mutate slowly (through small genetic changes called antigenic drift) and quickly through a process called reassortment. Antigenic drift is responsible for the seasonal variations every year and reassortment is responsible for the development of new strains that can cause pandemics.

Influenza type A (Flu A) viruses are especially prone to reassortment due to their wide host range (humans, dogs, birds, pigs, horses, whales, seals, and other animals). Specifically, the Flu A genome is made up of eight loosely linked segments, each of which harbors at least one important gene. Those genes direct the expression of the major viral proteins such as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In the process of viral reproduction, the linkages between the eight segments of the Flu A genome break apart. Since it is possible for two different Flu A strains to infect a cell simultaneously, some of the genetic segments from one strain can be swapped with another during reproduction. For instance, if a human flu virus and a bird flu virus infect a person, reassortment can intermingle genes from both viruses during replication and create a virus with a protein against which humans have little or no immunity, plus human influenza genes that are more likely to cause sustained human-to-human transmission. In contrast, Influenza B (Flu B) and C viruses do not cause pandemics, most likely due to their limited host range of only humans.

Flu A virus is the most common flu virus infecting humans, animals, and birds. It is divided into subtypes, based on the nature of their surface glycoproteins, HA and NA. There are 18 different HAs and 11 NAs that are distinguishable serologically (antibodies to one virus subtype do not react with another). In comparison, Flu B infection mostly occurs in humans and is divided into lineages and strains. Currently circulating influenza B viruses belong to one of the two lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. This virus is responsible for significant morbidity which is why the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains Flu B as an integral component. Unlike Flu A or B, Influenza C viruses only cause a mild respiratory illness in humans and secondary complications are rare. Flu C is structurally different from Flu A and B viruses and contains a glycoprotein called HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion).

Influenza viruses are mostly spread by aerosolization made when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract and signs of a secondary respiratory infection often appear just as the infected person seems to be recovering. The elderly and the chronically ill are at greater risk for secondary infection and other complications. Children can also experience a rare, but serious complication called Reye’s syndrome.

Diagnosis

Diagnostic influenza tests help the identification of influenza types A and B and influenza A subtypes 2009 H1N1, H1, H3, H5, N1, and N2. Influenza tests include rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), direct fluorescent antibody stains, viral cultures, and molecular assays.

RIDTs have become routine influenza tests since their initial FDA approval in 1999, and they typically detect both Type A and B influenza. They are easy to use, relatively inexpensive, and provide rapid results in 10-30 minutes, allowing physicians to prescribe antivirals in the relatively small window of effectiveness (1-2 days after onset of symptoms). The performance of RIDTs is highly dependent on the quality of reagents, proficiency of operation, transport and storage conditions, time from illness onset to sample collection, and the emergence of genomic variations and novel strains. Many RIDTs detect the nucleoprotein (NP), which is one of the more conserved proteins in the influenza virus and subsequently less likely to undergo mutations that lead to antigenic drift (which in turn can cause the functional components of an RIDT to not recognize a current influenza strain). The major limitation of currently available RIDTs is their low and variable sensitivity. To obtain a true increase in assay sensitivity, monoclonal antibodies capable of recognizing existing and emerging strains are critical.

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