Cocaine is a tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug which is most commonly used as a recreational drug and euphoriant. It acts as an indirect sympathomimetic by blocking the dopamine transporter and it is highly addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine has a short half-life of 6-hours and is only detectable in urine for up to one day after last use. Its major metabolite benzoylecgonine has a half-life of 12 hours and can be detected in urine up to 4 days after last use. Screening assays for cocaine usually detect both cocaine and benzoylecgonine using competitive-based ELISA assays on urine samples.
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