African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a DNA virus that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected pig, contaminated feed, or through the bite of an infected tick. There are over 22 different genotypes of ASFV, and they can vary in virulence from highly pathogenic strains that cause acute disease and high mortality (90-100%) to low–virulence isolates that present similar but less intense symptoms making the disease chronic and difficult to diagnose. Several immunogenic viral antigens have been identified, including p30 which is one of the most antigenic structural proteins involved in ASFV entry and is expressed very early on in infection (2-4 hours post-infection). ASFV can be diagnosed by virus isolation, ELISA, immunofluorescence, or PCR using clinical samples such as lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, lung, blood, and serum. The simultaneous detection of both antigens and antibodies is recommended in order to identify the presence of potentially chronic infections that continue to spread the disease.
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