Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD)
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. It affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants and is estimated to circulate in 77% of the global livestock population, in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, as well as in a limited area of South America. FMD is caused by an Aphthovirus and seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) are endemic in different countries worldwide. Each strain requires a specific vaccine to provide immunity to a vaccinated animal. Its prevention is based on the presence of early detection and warning systems and the implementation of effective surveillance among other measures. Diagnosis is ELISA, cell culture isolation, and PCR.
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