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Influenza A

Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, chills, a hacking cough, and body aches which can self-resolve in 1-2 weeks. However, complications can arise including life-threatening secondary infections. Influenza is a serious disease, and approximately 1 in 1,000 cases result in death.

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Name Type Format Host/Source Isotype Tested Apps Unit Catalog SDS COA Request Sample
Influenza A Nucleoprotein Antigen Purified, Liquid E. coli N/A EIA,LF,WB,CLI MG 9593 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb Influenza A Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG1 EIA,LF,Pr MG 9586 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 Hemagglutinin Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R88640 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 Hemagglutinin Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA,HA MG R88540 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 Neuraminidase Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R88340 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 NS2 Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R88245 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 Hemagglutinin Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA,HA MG R88240 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H5N1 NS1 Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R88235 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Shangdong/9/93) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86874 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Kiev/301/94) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA,IM MG R86480 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/New Caledonia) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86380 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Panama/2007/99) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86288 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A(A/Beijing/262/95) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA MG R86280 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (H1N1) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA,CON ML R01698 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (H3N2) antigen Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A EIA,WB ML R01623 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H1 Peptide Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R01423 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A N1 (swine) Peptide Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R01421 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A H1 (swine) Peptide Antigen Purified Synthetic N/A EIA MG R01419 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Wisconsin Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01250 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Brisbane/10/07) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01249 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A (A/Solomon Island) Antigen Purified Chicken Eggs N/A IM MG R01245 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5N1 Monoclonal Aff.Pur. Mouse IgG EIA MG C88205M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5N1 Monoclonal Aff.Pur. Mouse IgG3 EIA MG C88200M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal HRP Mouse IgG2a EIA,DB,HI MG C86490P SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a DB,EIA,HI MG C86490M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a ICC MG C86305M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H1 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,ICC,IFA,HI MG C86304M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a DB,EIA,HI,Pr MG C86280M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a DB,EIA,HI MG C86270M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a DB,EIA,HI,Pr MG C86240M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,IFA,Pr MG C65385M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,IFA,Pr MG C65375M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,IFA,Pr MG C65365M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Nucleoprot. Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a IFA,IHC MG C65341M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Nucleoprot. Monoclonal FITC Mouse IgG2a IFA,IHC MG C65341F SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,IFA,Pr MG C65331M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,Pr,LF MG C01760M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,LF MG C01740M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,LF MG C01739M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,LF,Pr MG C01738M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 Pr,LF MG C01737M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,Pr,LF MG C01736M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 LF MG C01735M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,Pr,LF MG C01734M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 Pr,LF MG C01732M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,LF MG C01731M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA MG C01691M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H7 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01611M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H7 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01610M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H7 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,WB MG C01609M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA MG C01325M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG3 EIA MG C01324M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2b EIA,Pr,WB MG C01323M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01321M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H3 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,WB MG C01319M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H3 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01318M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,HI MG C01312M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,HI,Pr MG C01310M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H5 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a EIA,Pr MG C01309M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (matrix) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,LF,WB MG C01298M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H1 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,WB MG C01283M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H1 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01282M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A H1 Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 EIA,Pr,WB MG C01281M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (NP) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG2a IFA MG C01244M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
MAb to Influenza A (matrix) Monoclonal Purified Mouse IgG1 IFA,WB MG B87020M SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal Biotin Goat N/A IFA,IHA ML B65317G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal HRP Goat N/A EIA ML B65314G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal FITC Goat N/A IFA,IHA ML B65313G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal Purified Goat N/A IFA,IHA ML B65311G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti Influenza A M1 Polyclonal HRP Goat N/A EIA,ICC ML B65248G COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti Influenza A M1 Polyclonal FITC Goat N/A IFA ML B65247G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti Influenza A M1 Polyclonal Biotin Goat N/A EIA,IFA ML B65246G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti Influenza A-virions Polyclonal HRP Goat N/A IHC,EIA ML B65243G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal FITC Goat N/A IFA,IHC ML B65242G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A Polyclonal Biotin Goat N/A IFA,IHC ML B65241G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A M1 Polyclonal Purified Goat N/A EIA,IFA ML B65143G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Goat anti-influenza A(virions) Polyclonal Purified Goat N/A IFA,IHC ML B65141G SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Influenza A, NP Rec. Ag Antigen Purified HEK Cells N/A EIA,LF MG BN1119 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG1,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1074 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2a,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1073 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2a,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1072 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG1,k EIA,LF,Pr MG BN1071 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG2a EIA,LF MG BN1070 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample
Mab to Influenza A NP Monoclonal Purified, Liquid Mouse IgG1 EIA,LF MG BN1069 SDSSafety Data Sheet COACERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Request Sample

Influenza

There are three main types of influenza virus (Types A, B, and C) that cause infection in humans and these are further characterized into subtypes and strains. The continued emergence of new flu strains each year is due to the ability of the influenza virus to mutate slowly (through small genetic changes called antigenic drift) and quickly through a process called reassortment. Antigenic drift is responsible for the seasonal variations every year and reassortment is responsible for the development of new strains that can cause pandemics.

Influenza type A (Flu A) viruses are especially prone to reassortment due to their wide host range (humans, dogs, birds, pigs, horses, whales, seals, and other animals). Specifically, the Flu A genome is made up of eight loosely linked segments, each of which harbors at least one important gene. Those genes direct the expression of the major viral proteins such as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In the process of viral reproduction, the linkages between the eight segments of the Flu A genome break apart. Since it is possible for two different Flu A strains to infect a cell simultaneously, some of the genetic segments from one strain can be swapped with another during reproduction. For instance, if a human flu virus and a bird flu virus infect a person, reassortment can intermingle genes from both viruses during replication and create a virus with a protein against which humans have little or no immunity, plus human influenza genes that are more likely to cause sustained human-to-human transmission. In contrast, Influenza B (Flu B) and C viruses do not cause pandemics, most likely due to their limited host range of only humans.

Flu A virus is the most common flu virus infecting humans, animals, and birds. It is divided into subtypes, based on the nature of their surface glycoproteins, HA and NA. There are 18 different HAs and 11 NAs that are distinguishable serologically (antibodies to one virus subtype do not react with another). In comparison, Flu B infection mostly occurs in humans and is divided into lineages and strains. Currently circulating influenza B viruses belong to one of the two lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. This virus is responsible for significant morbidity which is why the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains Flu B as an integral component. Unlike Flu A or B, Influenza C viruses only cause a mild respiratory illness in humans and secondary complications are rare. Flu C is structurally different from Flu A and B viruses and contains a glycoprotein called HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion).

Influenza viruses are mostly spread by aerosolization made when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract and signs of a secondary respiratory infection often appear just as the infected person seems to be recovering. The elderly and the chronically ill are at greater risk for secondary infection and other complications. Children can also experience a rare, but serious complication called Reye’s syndrome.

Diagnosis

Diagnostic influenza tests help the identification of influenza types A and B and influenza A subtypes 2009 H1N1, H1, H3, H5, N1, and N2. Influenza tests include rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), direct fluorescent antibody stains, viral cultures, and molecular assays.

RIDTs have become routine influenza tests since their initial FDA approval in 1999, and they typically detect both Type A and B influenza. They are easy to use, relatively inexpensive, and provide rapid results in 10-30 minutes, allowing physicians to prescribe antivirals in the relatively small window of effectiveness (1-2 days after onset of symptoms). The performance of RIDTs is highly dependent on the quality of reagents, proficiency of operation, transport and storage conditions, time from illness onset to sample collection, and the emergence of genomic variations and novel strains. Many RIDTs detect the nucleoprotein (NP), which is one of the more conserved proteins in the influenza virus and subsequently less likely to undergo mutations that lead to antigenic drift (which in turn can cause the functional components of an RIDT to not recognize a current influenza strain). The major limitation of currently available RIDTs is their low and variable sensitivity. To obtain a true increase in assay sensitivity, monoclonal antibodies capable of recognizing existing and emerging strains are critical.

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