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Influenza A

Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, chills, a hacking cough, and body aches which can self-resolve in 1-2 weeks. However, complications can arise including life-threatening secondary infections. Influenza is a serious disease, and approximately 1 in 1,000 cases result in death.

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77 Results
Name
Type
Format
Host/Source
Isotype
Tested Apps
Unit
Catalog
SDS
COA
Request Sample
Respiratory
Purified, Liquid
E. coli
N/A
CLI
MG
9593
Purified, Liquid
(blank)
IgG1
Pr
MG
9586
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Hemagglutinin (Middle Region)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
HA
MG
R88540
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Hemagglutinin (Middle Region)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R88640
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R88235
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Hemagglutinin, N-Terminal
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
HA
MG
R88240
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Nonstructural Protein 2 (NS2)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R88245
Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Neuraminidase, C-Terminal
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R88340
Influenza A Strain A/Shangdong/9/93 (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
EIA
MG
R86874
Influenza A Strain A/New Caledonia/20/99 IVR 116 (H1N1)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
EIA
MG
R86380
Influenza A Strain A/Kiev/301/94 (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
IM
MG
R86480
Influenza A Strain A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
EIA
MG
R86280
Influenza A Strain A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
EIA
MG
R86288
Influenza A (H1N1)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
CON
ML
R01698
Influenza A (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
WB
ML
R01623
Influenza A (Swine H1N1) Hemagglutinin (A/California/14/2009)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R01419
Influenza A (Swine H1N1) Neuraminidase (A/California/14/2009)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R01421
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1 (A/Brisbane/59/2007)(H1N1)
Purified
Synthetic
N/A
EIA
MG
R01423
Influenza A Strain A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
IM
MG
R01250
Influenza A Strain A/Solomon Islands/03/06 (H1N1)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
IM
MG
R01245
Influenza A Strain A/Brisbane/10/07 (H3N2)
Purified
Chicken Eggs
N/A
IM
MG
R01249
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Aff.Pur.
Mouse
IgG3
EIA
MG
C88200M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Aff.Pur.
Mouse
IgG
EIA
MG
C88205M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5(Avian H5N1)
HRP
Mouse
IgG2a
HI
MG
C86490P
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
HI
MG
C86490M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
ICC
MG
C86305M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
HI
MG
C86304M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
Pr
MG
C86280M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
HI
MG
C86270M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
Pr
MG
C86240M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
Pr
MG
C65385M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
Pr
MG
C65375M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
Pr
MG
C65365M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
Pr
MG
C65331M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
FITC
Mouse
IgG2a
IHC
MG
C65341F
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
IHC
MG
C65341M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2b
LF
MG
C01760M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
LF
MG
C01739M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
LF
MG
C01740M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
LF
MG
C01737M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2b
Pr
MG
C01738M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
LF
MG
C01735M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
LF
MG
C01736M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
LF
MG
C01732M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
LF
MG
C01734M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
LF
MG
C01731M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
EIA
MG
C01691M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H7
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01611M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H7
Purified
Mouse
IgG2b
WB
MG
C01609M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H7
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01610M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG3
EIA
MG
C01324M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
EIA
MG
C01325M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01321M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2b
WB
MG
C01323M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H3
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01318M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H3
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
WB
MG
C01319M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
Pr
MG
C01310M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
HI
MG
C01312M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H5 (Avian H5N1)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
Pr
MG
C01309M
Influenza A (matrix protein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01298M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01282M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01283M
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
C01281M
Influenza A (Nucleoprotein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG2a
IFA
MG
C01244M
Influenza A (matrix protein)
Purified
Mouse
IgG1
WB
MG
B87020M
Influenza A H3N2 (Virions)
Biotin
Goat
N/A
IHA
ML
B65317G
Influenza A H3N2 (Virions)
Purified
Goat
N/A
IHA
ML
B65311G
Influenza A H3N2 (Virions)
FITC
Goat
N/A
IHA
ML
B65313G
Influenza A H3N2 (Virions)
HRP
Goat
N/A
EIA
ML
B65314G
Influenza A (matrix protein M1)
Biotin
Goat
N/A
IFA
ML
B65246G
Influenza A (matrix protein M1)
FITC
Goat
N/A
IFA
ML
B65247G
Influenza A (matrix protein M1)
HRP
Goat
N/A
ICC
ML
B65248G
Influenza A H1N1 (Virions)
FITC
Goat
N/A
IHC
ML
B65242G
Influenza A H1N1 (Virions)
HRP
Goat
N/A
EIA
ML
B65243G
Influenza A H1N1 (Virions)
Biotin
Goat
N/A
IHC
ML
B65241G
Influenza A Hemagglutinin H1 (H1N1 Virions)
Purified
Goat
N/A
IHC
ML
B65141G
Influenza A (matrix protein M1)
Purified
Goat
N/A
IFA
ML
B65143G

Influenza

There are three main types of influenza virus (Types A, B, and C) that cause infection in humans and these are further characterized into subtypes and strains. The continued emergence of new flu strains each year is due to the ability of the influenza virus to mutate slowly (through small genetic changes called antigenic drift) and quickly through a process called reassortment. Antigenic drift is responsible for the seasonal variations every year and reassortment is responsible for the development of new strains that can cause pandemics.

Influenza type A (Flu A) viruses are especially prone to reassortment due to their wide host range (humans, dogs, birds, pigs, horses, whales, seals, and other animals). Specifically, the Flu A genome is made up of eight loosely linked segments, each of which harbors at least one important gene. Those genes direct the expression of the major viral proteins such as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In the process of viral reproduction, the linkages between the eight segments of the Flu A genome break apart. Since it is possible for two different Flu A strains to infect a cell simultaneously, some of the genetic segments from one strain can be swapped with another during reproduction. For instance, if a human flu virus and a bird flu virus infect a person, reassortment can intermingle genes from both viruses during replication and create a virus with a protein against which humans have little or no immunity, plus human influenza genes that are more likely to cause sustained human-to-human transmission. In contrast, Influenza B (Flu B) and C viruses do not cause pandemics, most likely due to their limited host range of only humans.

Flu A virus is the most common flu virus infecting humans, animals, and birds. It is divided into subtypes, based on the nature of their surface glycoproteins, HA and NA. There are 18 different HAs and 11 NAs that are distinguishable serologically (antibodies to one virus subtype do not react with another). In comparison, Flu B infection mostly occurs in humans and is divided into lineages and strains. Currently circulating influenza B viruses belong to one of the two lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. This virus is responsible for significant morbidity which is why the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains Flu B as an integral component. Unlike Flu A or B, Influenza C viruses only cause a mild respiratory illness in humans and secondary complications are rare. Flu C is structurally different from Flu A and B viruses and contains a glycoprotein called HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion).

Influenza viruses are mostly spread by aerosolization made when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract and signs of a secondary respiratory infection often appear just as the infected person seems to be recovering. The elderly and the chronically ill are at greater risk for secondary infection and other complications. Children can also experience a rare, but serious complication called Reye’s syndrome.

Diagnosis

Diagnostic influenza tests help the identification of influenza types A and B and influenza A subtypes 2009 H1N1, H1, H3, H5, N1, and N2. Influenza tests include rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), direct fluorescent antibody stains, viral cultures, and molecular assays.

RIDTs have become routine influenza tests since their initial FDA approval in 1999, and they typically detect both Type A and B influenza. They are easy to use, relatively inexpensive, and provide rapid results in 10-30 minutes, allowing physicians to prescribe antivirals in the relatively small window of effectiveness (1-2 days after onset of symptoms). The performance of RIDTs is highly dependent on the quality of reagents, proficiency of operation, transport and storage conditions, time from illness onset to sample collection, and the emergence of genomic variations and novel strains. Many RIDTs detect the nucleoprotein (NP), which is one of the more conserved proteins in the influenza virus and subsequently less likely to undergo mutations that lead to antigenic drift (which in turn can cause the functional components of an RIDT to not recognize a current influenza strain). The major limitation of currently available RIDTs is their low and variable sensitivity. To obtain a true increase in assay sensitivity, monoclonal antibodies capable of recognizing existing and emerging strains are critical.

Get In Touch With A Specialist

Have questions about a product? Want to learn more about Meridian’s molecular or immunoassay reagent portfolio? We want to hear from you!

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